Continue to access RSC content when you are not at your institution. Follow our step-by-step guide. Small-molecule fluorescent probes have become powerful tools for using light to advance the study of cell biology, discover new drugs, detect environmental contaminants, and further the detection of cancer. These applications correlate with the expansion of the fluorescent probe research community — small in the late 20 th century, now a collection of more than a hundred research groups world-wide. This expansion required the entry of adventurous scientists from many other fields. This tutorial review introduces some important concepts related to fluorescent probe development. It is hoped that it will facilitate further expansion of the field by demystifying it. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material and it is not used for commercial purposes. Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.
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This paper aims to provide an overview concerning the optically stimulated luminescence OSL dating method and its applications for geomorphological research in France. An outline of the general physical principles of luminescence dating is given. A case study of fluvial sands from the lower terrace of the Moselle valley is then presented to describe the range of field and laboratory procedures required for successful luminescence dating. The paper also reviews the place of OSL dating in geomorphological research in France and assesses its potential for further research, by focusing on the diversity of sedimentary environments and topics to which it can be usefully applied.
Hence it underlines the increasing importance of the method to geomorphological research, especially by contributing to the development of quantitative geomorphology. They are now largely used to date not only palaeontological or organic remains, but also minerals that characterise detrital clastic sedimentary material. The most common methods applied to minerals are cosmogenic radionuclides, electron spin resonance ESR and luminescence techniques.
The latter were first applied to burned minerals from archaeological artefacts [thermoluminescence TL method]. Improvements of this technique led to the development, for more than twenty years, of the optical dating method [commonly referred to as Optically Stimuled Luminescence OSL ] which is now applied to sediments from various origins Wintle, The aim of this paper is to provide people involved in geomorphological research a global overview about the principles and procedures of optical dating, from the field sampling to the age interpretation.
Most of the publications actually focus on one part of either the method e. The general principles of the method are described first. The paper then explains how OSL dating is applied to obtain a depositional age, through the field and laboratory procedures employed.
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Using wavelength and slope to infer the historical origin of semiarid vegetation bands.
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Optical property measurements on blood are influenced by a large variety of factors of both physical and methodological origin. Hereto, we combine Kramers—Kronig analysis with analytical scattering theory, extended with Percus—Yevick structure factors that take into account the effect of dependent scattering in whole blood. The interaction of light with blood plays an important role in optical diagnostics and therapeutics—for instance for the non-invasive assessment of blood composition [ 1 ] and the laser treatment of varicose veins [ 2 ].
Predictions on the accuracy and outcome of these optical methods can be obtained through simulation models of the light—blood interaction. Dating back to as early as [ 3 ], many studies have focused on the quantitative assessment of these optical properties [ 4 — 10 ]. These studies demonstrated that optical property measurements on whole blood are challenging, due to the considerable light attenuation in undiluted blood.
Although light attenuation is less in diluted samples, rescaling of the optical properties from these samples to whole blood introduces an additional challenge because the scattering properties of blood scale non-linearly as a function of red blood cell concentration haematocrit [ 10 — 12 ]. As a consequence, sample preparation, but also measurement method and conditions e.
We obtained estimates of red blood cell scattering by combining this approach with analytical scattering theory. Here, we extend this method using Percus—Yevick structure factors that take into account the spatial correlations between the positions of individual red blood cells in a whole blood medium.
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Original data of LA-MC-ICP-MS U–Pb dating results of cassiterite carried out on selected samples using electron microprobe in wavelength dispersive mode.
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A literature review and novel theoretical approach on the optical properties of whole blood
Laser ablation has become a dominant technology for direct solid sampling in analytical chemistry. Laser ablation refers to the process in which an intense burst of energy delivered by a short laser pulse is used to sample remove a portion of a material. The advantages of laser-ablation chemical analysis include direct characterization of solids, no chemical procedures for dissolution, reduced risk of contamination or sample loss, analysis of very small samples not separable for solution analysis, and determination of spatial distributions of elemental composition.
Since then the word ablation has been adopted in the analytical community to describe the direct removal of material from samples of interest for subsequent chemical analysis. There are many excellent review papers related to the techniques presented here 3—
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Please refresh the page and retry. H ere’s the lowdown on intense pulsed light – does it work, is it painful, and how does it compare to laser hair removal? Hair removal has come a long way since its humble IPL beginnings. The good news is that we now have a far more effective hair removal offering available to us in the form of lasers — a growing and sophisticated area of the treatment industry, set to be worth 2. The bad news is a more confusing, often risk-associated, world of treatments.
Here we answer a few of your burning hair removal questions, and with the help of the experts, hope to smooth out the tangled IPL vs. What is IPL? IPL stands for intense pulsed light, and it is a form of light therapy, used for various dermatological procedures including hair removal. So what’s the difference between IPL and laser hair removal technology? Unlike laser treatments, which have just one specific wavelength emitted from the diode depending on what you’re targeting, IPL has multiple wavelengths all between and 1, nanometres that scatter within the skin.
As with all light based treatments, IPL works by emitting a wavelength into the skin, which in the case of hair removal targets pigment. It quickly turns to heat which then kills the growing cells that make the hair,” Thomas adds. Hair has to be living for it to work however, “in that, we mean it has to be attached to the bulb of growing cells – when you pull out a hair and it has that little jelly bulb around it, it’s one of the 20 to 40 per cent of living hair on you body.
If you pull it out and it doesn’t, it’s a dead hair which can stay on your skin for up to three weeks.